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The energy balance of Italy is safe? How much do we depend on others (that is, from abroad, including EU countries) to light and heat our homes, operate transport and obviously also factories and offices? Here's how things stand in order.
The answer to the first question is 'no': Italy has a situation that in the 2014 SEAP (Action Plan for Energy Efficiency) is defined with optimism as 'rather critical' in terms of security and independence of supplies. The energy balancespeaking of electricity, gas and oil, it is not good.
The answer to the second question is 'a lot': as of 2012, 82% of the Italian energy requirement (equal to 163.2 Mtoe according to EUOSTAT) was covered (today we are in 2014) by net imports. National production from renewables, gas and crude oil covered respectively only 11.1%, 4.3% and 3.5% of national needs (if the import + export sum exceeds 100 it is because part of the internal production is exported).
The criticality of the energy balance Italian is evident if we consider that the average share of imports in the European Union of 28 countries is much lower, equal to about 55% of the requirement. Speaking of money, in 2012 Italy spent 57.9 billion euros to import oil and natural gas.
But there is also the good news. Above all, the increase in electricity production from renewable sources in 2013 compared to the previous year: hydroelectricity + 21.4%, photovoltaic + 18.9%, wind power, + 11.6%, geothermal energy + 1.0% . On the other hand, the production of electricity from thermoelectric sources fell sharply (-12%). Good news is also the excellent positioning of Italy in terms of energy efficiency.
A energy balance safer and less dependent on foreign supplies is the cornerstone of the National Energy Strategy of 8 March 2013. Four in particular are the objectives that are highlighted in the document in the SEN:
- greater security in energy supplies, with a reduction in the foreign energy bill of about 14 million euros per year;
- boost to growth and employment with the launch of investments, both in traditional sectors and in the green economy, for 170-180 billion euros by 2020;
- reduction of energy costs with price alignment at European levels (an estimated saving of 9 billion euros per year on the electricity and gas bill);
- exceeding the European objectives defined by the European Climate-Energy 2020 Package.